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This is based on history and today’s metal science. Surgical stainless steel (316L) and titanium are near the bottom of the Galvanic Corrosion Table (following this topic). These metals are a very new developments with respect to history. Bronze, silver, gold and sheet metals have been excavated from sites thousands of years old. The Gateway Arch in Saint Louis has an estimated life span of over 500 years. It’s made using 304 stainless and is subject to severe stress. Copper Roman coins, a very soft metal, are still readable after thousands of years underground. Immortal Memories™ Tributes, made using the most durable metals developed by man to date, will be here and legible for thousands of years.

Surgical stainless steel is a variation of steel consisting of an alloy of chromium (12-20%), molybdenum (0.2-3%), and sometimes nickel (8-12%). The chromium gives the metal its sheen, scratch-resistance and corrosion resistance. The molybdenum gives corrosion-resistance, and helps maintaining a cutting edge.

Grade 316 stainless steel has excellent corrosion resistance in a wide range of media. Better corrosion resistance than grades 302 and 304; resists sodium and calcium brines; hypochlorite solutions, phosphoric acid; and the sulfite liquors and sulfurous acids.

About gold pendantNISHIYAMA Yoichi
Department of Literature
Nara University

“Metal relics discovered at archaeological sites in Japan can be divided roughly into three categories: those made of iron, bronze, and those of gold or silver. Iron relics include swords, arrowheads, and armor; bronze relics include mirrors, coins and dotaku (bronze bell-shaped vessels); gold and silver relics are mostly jewelry, such as earrings, rings, and beads. Tin fittings have also been excavated, but they are generally rare. A considerable number of metal artifacts were discovered in archaeological sites dating after the Yayoi period (ca. 350 BC to 4th century AD). In particular many metal artifacts, including swords and bronze mirrors, have been discovered in kofun, which are burial mounds from the Kofun period (ca. 4th to 7th century AD).

Iron and bronze relics are especially fragile, as they undergo the process of oxidation while buried.
Their deterioration continues rapidly after excavation. Therefore, iron and bronze relics must undergo scientific treatment for their preservation.”


The oldest archaeological site in South America containing metal artifacts is located in coastal Peru; the artifacts are dated to between 1400 B.C. and 1100 B.C. From 200 B.C. to A.D. 1000, sheet metal working was pervasive throughout the Andes.


CoinThe Greeks and Romans minted coins hundreds of years before the time of Christ. The most common ancient coins are Roman coins minted in the third and fourth centuries AD (200 AD to 400 AD), so most ancient coins are 1600 years old or older, and many are over 2000 years old. The very earliest coins were struck about 600 BC.

Protective Coatings:

The metal coatings (oxide or PVD) are not the problem. As mentioned on our Coatings page, the oxide or PVD metal coatings have a propensity to scratch. In an outdoor environment where where wind, dirt, and potential vandals lurk, a protective coating is necessary. All memorial producers I've reviewed only guarantee their coatings for a limited duration. We would have to do the same for our FPU coating, which is one of the finest coatings in the world. However, it still has an organic base. The ultimate answer is a thick-film synthetic diamond. To date (June 15, 2013) it is not available. We are constantly looking for new possibilities. We are now working with a company in Ohio that may have a new option.



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